A Guide to Accounting Basics

Understanding the accounting basics within any business is very important. The reports created will help you decide how you need to change or improve your small business.

A Guide to Accounting Basics

While you can rely on other people doing the work for you, it is worth taking time to understand the reports’ basics and get the correct accounting information you require.

Why are the basics of accounting so essential?

Keeping up-to-date with the business accounting basics may sound a bore, but it is vital to stay on track with your small business’s financial position. There is a basic accounting equation that is the basis of all accounts.

Basic Accounting Equation

Bookkeeping Basics

Completing everyday transactions is part of the bookkeeping basics. Bookkeeping basics covers credit control, sales invoicing, reconciling bank accounts, writing cheques, posting receipts, producing profit and loss accounts, and maintaining the balance sheet.

Every small business needs to complete its bookkeeping basics to produce accurate accounting reports regularly.

Types of accounting records

There are two types of accounts that make up accounting basics – financial and management accounts.

Company Financial Accounts basics

Every limited liability company needs to produce a set of accounts at the end of its financial year. These consist of a profit and loss account, balance sheet, trial balance, and cash-flow statement.

Every company in the UK has to submit these accounts to Companies House, as specified in the Companies Act. These accounts become publicly accessible records and can be accessed by anyone for a small fee.

These Financial Accounts will need to be completed by Accountants with a report from the Directors and the Accountant. Small companies can produce abbreviated accounts. Check with your accountant as to the reports which you need to submit for your small business.

Your financial reports will enable investors to look at the performance of your company. The bank may also require a copy to help secure overdrafts or small business loans.

The basics of self-employed financial accounts

If you are self-employed, you will still need to produce accounting records once per year, although these need not be as comprehensive as company accounts. You will use this information to complete your self-assessment tax return.

If you are self-employed, it is worthwhile setting your financial year-end to the 31st March, in line with the nominal tax year. It makes it much easier to complete your tax return and save money if you use an external accountant or bookkeeper to maintain your accounts.

Management Accounts basics

Do you know from your accounting reports how much money your small business will have in the bank in six months? You should have a rough idea. If not, how can you budget for staff, premises and other outgoings?

The tools that give you this information are management accounts.

Management accounts are reports which help you make decisions in running your business. Cash-flow statements and forecasts, stock reports, fixed asset registers, purchasing processes – these are all tools that help you keep your finger on the pulse of your business.

Every business is different and requires different reports, depending on the size and type of company. Some companies produce these accounts monthly; others will present some of these reports weekly – or even daily.

Accounting software and free accounting software

Best Accounting Software for small business

While it is not a requirement to use a software package to handle your business accounts, modern software packages streamline the whole accounting system – producing management accounts at a touch of a button and significantly reducing the amount of time spent on bookkeeping.

Many different packages are available to help your small business, from free software you can download from the internet to major financial systems costing millions of pounds.

Look at our accounting software review section for more information on the most popular accounting packages available, including the free software downloads.

The most popular software packages include FreshBooks, QuickBooks, Ember, Zoho Books and Xero.

When setting up your accounts software, it is essential to ensure you have a chart of accounts that works for your business. It sets up all the Nominal codes and is the basis of reporting.

8 Steps of the Accounting Cycle

8 Steps of the Accounting Cycle

The 8 steps of the accounting cycle are the process that companies use, from processing transactions to producing trial balances, making adjustments, preparing the financial statements and closing the year-end.

We look at each step in detail and explain what the accounting cycle is.

Accounting Ratios

Various people use accounting ratios to see how well a business is performing. Business owners will use profitability ratios, while lenders and investors will use ratios to see if they can pay their debts.

In the section on accounting ratios, we look at a few examples and provide several accounting calculators, including simplified expenses, gross profit, net profit cost of goods sold and Flat rate Vat.

Accounting Basics Courses

If you want to learn more about the basics of accounting, it may be worth looking into an accounting course; these can either be completed at home in your spare time or a part-time college course. You can learn anything from the basics to becoming a fully qualified accountant.

All the accounting bodies run courses, which generally start in September. The Open University also runs a Certificate in Accounting, which is a one year course.

If you are looking into a course because you work in accounting and want to learn more, it may be worth asking your employer to fund the course.

Accounting Regulating Bodies

If you are looking for an accountant to complete your accounts regularly or year-end figures, it is worth checking the qualifications of the accountant you use. All accountants should belong to one of the main regulatory bodies. For further information, look at accounting regulatory bodies.

Accounting Basics – History

We have produced a short introduction to accounting history, explaining how it started and who first invented the double-entry system.

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